Section 4-2: Exterior Architectural Elements
4-2-00 Design Requirements
10 Design Guidance
20 Design Information
30 Design Document Requirements (Reserved)
4-2-00 Design Requirements
A. Exterior Walls
Exterior elevations (and exterior wall systems) shall be compatible with the styles of previously constructed permanent facilities of the campus and with the elements proposed in the NIH Master plan. To ensure compatibility, the physical features of the site and the character and style of any surrounding building(s) should be observed and documented by the design team. Colors, textures and forms of existing buildings or other site features must be considered when developing elevations for new construction. Elevations should be developed based on functional relationships and requirements and, where possible, should take advantage of existing and developed site assets
All building designs shall be presented to and receive approval from the Architectural Design Review Board (ADRB). The A/E shall coordinate ADRB submittal dates and requirements with the Project Officer. The A/E shall take into consideration the visual impact of any new structure, especially on an existing surrounding building(s). The A/E shall consider controlled access, monitoring features and physical security, and is required to contact DPSM for further direction in these areas during the planning and design stages.
B. Operable Windows:
Operable windows are not permitted in NIH Research Laboratory and Animal Research Facility buildings.
4-2-10 Design Guidance
The design characteristics of exterior elevations and wall systems shall be evaluated for aesthetics, functionality, and cost effectiveness as their characteristics relate to the following:
• Exterior wall termination at the roof or the top of parapet walls (including penthouses).
• Construction and control joint locations, considering their impact on sterile areas, construction sequence, and building movement due to expansion and contraction.
• Corner conditions, especially material relationships at the intersections of vertical planes and the continuity of wall supports and flashings.
• Load transfer of the wall to the structure, including consideration of structural frame exposure and lateral wall supports.
• Watertight design, including sealant profiles, material adjacencies, and flashing configuration.
• Window placement relative to the wall, secondary connection requirements, material adjacencies, window washing, glass type and thickness, and life safety hardware.
A. Exterior Walls:
Design and construction shall be based on standards, specifications, and publications for the products selected, i.e. masonry, curtain walls, metal panels, etc.
A.1 Exterior Wall Compositions:
Exterior wall compositions shall be based on durability, thermal performance, vapor barrier requirement, and aesthetic requirements as they relate to the campus environment, cost, and in some cases, historic considerations.
A.2 Exterior Building Materials:
Exterior cladding shall meet engineering standards with respect to sustainability, environment energy use, materials, and methods of construction. In selecting building materials, careful consideration must be given to all technical criteria and the requirement for high durability and minimal maintenance.
A.3 Exterior Elements:
Mechanical, electrical, transportation, and equipment items that are located along the exterior of the facility shall be integrated into the design wherever possible, and per the pest management requirements. These elements include air intake/exhaust vents, exterior lights, utility connections, plumbing vents, fuel tank vents, liquid oxygen tanks, transformers, trash compactors, containers, and loading docks.
Design and construction shall be based on standards, specifications, and publications for the products selected, including those by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), American Concrete Institute (ACI), Building Stone Institute, Structural Clay Products Institute, Indiana Limestone Institute, Marble Institute of America, National Building Granite Quarries Association, National Concrete Masonry Association, Indiana Limestone Institute, Brick Industry Association, and the Portland Cement Association.
Exterior Walls Faced With Brick: If a building façade will be faced with brick or concrete masonry facing units, the backup across the cavity is preferred to be concrete masonry units (CMU). If cost/benefit analysis indicates substantial savings by using metal studs, utilize Brick Industry Association standards for wall durability. Anchorage of the brick facing shall be designed so as not to be subject to corrosion at the fastener to metal stud location. Assure the wall will not flex when subjected to location indicated wind loads.
A.5 Curtain Walls:
Design and construction shall be based on standards, specifications, and publications for the products selected, including those by the ASTM, American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Aluminum Association (AA), Architectural Aluminum Manufacturing Association (AAMA), ACI, Metal Lath/Steel Framing Association, National Association of Architectural Metal Manufacturers, National Concrete Masonry Association, National Pre-cast Concrete Association, Portland Cement Association, Pre-cast Concrete Institute, Structural Clay Products Institute and Brick Industry Association.
A.6 Wall Thickness:
Placement of the wall in relation to the structure impacts the construction cost, fenestration, shading, exterior materials, thermal performance, and method of assembly. Careful consideration shall be given during the design process to developing the optimum wall thickness that satisfies the above elements in the most effective manner.
B. Thermal and Moisture Protection:
B.1 Roofing Systems:
Roofing systems shall be compatible with structural framing systems, and provide a complete, readily repairable, waterproof assembly. The system should be durable, require minimal maintenance, and must provide the fire ratings and classifications required. Warranties shall be provided for various types of roof systems based on specific NIH input during design. Roofing systems shall be designed in accordance with the recommendations of the National Roofing and Contractors Association Roofing and Waterproofing Manual, Factory Mutual Guidelines, ASTM Specifications and Tests and Methods, National Bureau of Standards, and Underwriters Laboratories. On all new construction, the roofing system shall be designed for resistance to wind uplift forces.
The use of roof penetrations should be minimized to the greatest extent possible. Penetrations shall not be installed in valleys or near drains or scuppers. When roof mounted equipment is used, the equipment should provide the lowest profiles for the application used. The supports shall be designed for the equipment size and weight, for ease of a complete reroofing process without disturbing the equipment, and for construction in a manner so as not to violate the waterproof integrity of the roofing materials. All roofs shall be designed with a positive slope to roof drains or gutters. Roof slope shall not be less than 21mm per meter. Consideration for future vertical expansion of the building should be incorporated in the roofing design on a project-by-project basis. All roofs shall provide for emergency overflow through the use of scuppers.
B.2 Moisture Migration:
All new construction and project that substantially alter the building envelope shall be designed to prevent moisture migration and condensation of water vapor within the envelope assembly.
B.3 Air Infiltration:
All new construction and projects that substantially alter the building envelope shall be designed to minimize air infiltration at locations separating the outdoors from interior conditioned spaces. Windows and doors shall be weather stripped. Exterior joints, cracks and holes in the building envelopes should be designed to be gasketed, weather-stripped, or otherwise sealed. All new construction and buildings that are substantially altered must include airlock vestibules or revolving doors at all primary entrances and exits to reduce infiltration due to stack draft effect.
B.4 Thermal Resistance:
The thermal characteristics of single materials and composite design of exterior wall assemblies shall be obtained, designed, and comply per requirements as outlined in Chapter 6 HVAC in compliance with energy conservation requirements.
B.5 Expansion Joints:
Horizontal and vertical expansion joints and relieving angles for cavity wall face brick shall be located, sized, and detailed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.
B.6 Joint Sealants:
Joint sealants shall be applied throughout for thermal and moisture protection as architectural practice dictates, and as required for fire stopping penetrations per industry standards. For joint sealants requirements in containment areas, see Paragraph 4-7-00 C “Sealants.” The A/E shall also specify sealants as required for pest management. When sealing application is required for any of the reasons, the most stringent shall be applied. See Exhibit X4-2-A for pest management sealant requirements.
C. Windows and Glazing:
All exterior windows shall be non-operable. All interior window sills shall be sloped, and all windows shall be sealed to ensure ease of cleaning and decontamination. Window systems shall use energy efficient glass. Consistent visual appearance on the exterior of the building shall be maintained by the type of window treatment selected. Appearance, function, heat gain, and loss air filtration, safety, structural requirements, suitability for the environment, operation and maintenance experience shall be considered.
Window treatments shall meet all functional and aesthetic needs and standards. Light tight treatments shall be provided in all spaces that require room darkening based on program needs, such as conference rooms, laboratories, etc. that may need to be darkened. If windows are provided in nonhuman primate areas, the room shall be capable of becoming light tight, accomplished through the use of adjustable shutters, blackout shades, or blackout panels. Integral devices within the window air space are preferred.
Fenestration shall be designed considering NFPA codes, heating, ventilation, and airconditioning requirements, aesthetic appearance, and the comfort of all users of the facility. Window design and construction should be based on the standards, guidelines, and publications of the ASTM, ANSI, AA, Architectural Aluminum Manufacturing Association, National Institute of Testing and Standards, and the Steel Window Institute.
C.2 Thermal Performance of Windows, Exterior Doors, Glazed Panels, and Skylights:
The use of glass shall be carefully studied in relation to energy conservation goals and building function. All new windows, glazed exterior doors, glazed panels and skylights shall be double glazed with a continuous thermal break. Condensation should not be apparent on glass when the indoor design temperature is 220C at 30% relative humidity. All windows, glazed exterior doors, glazed panels and skylights will have energy performance rating factors as evaluated in accordance with the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) procedures to minimize air infiltration. The following average unit performance factors apply to NIH facilities.
Glazing for windows, door glazed panel, skylights and curtain walls shall meet the requirements for energy conservation identified in DRM. All glazing designs should be evaluated for aesthetics, building function, energy conservation goals, shading characteristics, light transmittance, thermal characteristics, and reflectance. Low emissibity (Low-E) insulating glass shall be used unless other glazing types are shown to be more cost effective. Care must be taken to evaluate each building elevation individually. Glass sizes and thickness shall be based on wind loading and thermal conditions of the geographic area where the building is located.
Glazing for Impact Safety: Because of the size and shape of glazing in some locations, glass panels may be mistaken for a means of entry or exit and therefore may be subject to human impact. The requirements of ANSI Standard Z97.1, NFPA 80 and NFPA 101 shall be followed. Sill heights less than 760 mm above the finished floor must have an intermediate horizontal mullion, or suitable alternative, included in the fenestration or design at that height. If laminated glass is required for double glazed windows with a sill/stool less than 2 000mm above finish floor and for windows facing a courtyard, a laminated glass interior pane and tempered glass exterior pane shall be provided. If laminated glass is required for double glazed windows, it shall be provided for interior panes only.
C.4 Provisions for Window Cleaning:
The need for window cleaning and maintenance, including replacement of glazing shall be considered during design. Provisions for window cleaning equipment must be included in the design for all facilities.
C.5 Windows for Historic Buildings:
Projects affecting windows of historic building shall comply with the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for Rehabilitation Historic Buildings and the State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO). The A/E shall coordinate the design requirements with the NIH Historic Preservation Coordinator.
D. Loading Docks
D.1 Shipping and Receiving Areas:
Shipping and receiving marshalling space should be adjacent to the dock. The dock area also requires an office and telephone for the dock manager, toilet facilities, and an area to house vending machines. Vending areas must be designed to promote proper cleaning and sanitation. Materials used throughout these spaces should be durable enough to withstand high personnel use and regular cleaning activities. The loading dock berths, dock area and adjacent functional areas should be securable and should be designed to minimize the harboring of pests.
D.2 Overhead Protection:
Loading dock designs should allow materials to be protected from inclement weather conditions, while loading and unloading vehicles. Any overhangs or canopy projections in the vicinity of the loading dock must be of a sufficient height so as to provide necessary truck clearances, including the removal of refuse containers. Review of these design features by the Division of Environmental Protection is required prior to finalizing design.
D.3 Loading Dock Berths:
A minimum of two loading dock berths per building should be provided. Some buildings require additional berths depending on the function of the facility. For facilities housing animals, a dedicated animal berth that is visually protected for security should also be provided in addition to the two berths previously identified. This berth must be physically segregated from other dock berths and dock support functions. This includes vehicle docking and materials/supplies staging. Loading dock berths should be equipped with hydraulic load levelers, and at least one should be equipped with a hydraulic scissors lift capable of carrying a 1,016 kg load as a minimum.
D.4 Dock Protection:
Protective metal dock plates at the edge of the dock should be provided. Commercial grade dock bumpers (shock absorbing design, manufactured of pliable rubber) should be mounted under load levelers. Barriers that can prevent a truck from damaging the load leveler when backing to the leveler should also be provided.
D.5 Service Ramp:
A ramp with a gentle grade should be provided near the loading berths to allow small deliveries via lightweight equipment such as two wheeled hand trucks or four wheeled platform trucks that allows personnel to reach grade from the loading dock
A doorbell and “house” telephone located on the exterior of the loading docks shall be provided
D.7 Dock Wash down:
Hose bibs for loading dock shall be provided for wash down and cleanup activities.
D.8 General Concrete Apron for Loading Docks:
Loading docks shall be provided with concrete aprons of sufficient length and width to accommodate 23 m³ capacity compactor and open top containers or storage trailers.
D.9 Storage Requirements:
Provide and install adjustable height bi-level metal shelving with lipped edges and corrosion resistant coating for spill containment to provide segregated storage of wastes of various compatibility classes. This shall not be located adjacent to the animal loading dock.
E. Waste Management Areas:
Separate spaces should be provided within the dock area for holding and disposing of medical pathological waste, hazardous waste, radioactive waste, mixed waste, general waste, and recycling waste. Waste should not be staged for removal inside the receiving area of the loading dock. The dock entry points used for materials receiving or personnel must be isolated from the solid waste compacting, handling and storage operations, as solid waste operations can be attractive to pest species that are invasive to the facility.
E.1 Trash Dumpsters and Compactors:
A separate area for a minimum of one dumpster shall be programmed within the loading dock space. This area shall be constructed of a 200 mm thick reinforced concrete pad 9 150 mm minimum in length. The dumpster shall not block the loading dock, but access for disposal of trash to the dumpster shall be directly from the loading dock.
All new buildings shall be provided with a minimum of two 23 m³ self enclosed compactors or equivalent equipment for collection of cardboard to be recycled and general trash. Compactors shall be sited and designed to facilitate proper use and cleaning.
Dumpsters and compactors shall be provided with electrical power connections and hydraulic systems per manufacturers recommendations.
Smaller Buildings at Offsite Locations: Smaller buildings will not always require use of compactors based on occupancy and square footage. Smaller building shall allow loading dock space for two front end containers to provide for cardboard recycling and general trash disposal
E.2 Waste Management Rooms:
See Section 1-9 Environmental Management/Radiation Safety. The dock entry points used for materials receiving or personnel shall be isolated from the solid waste compacting, handling, and storage operations, as solid waste operations can be attractive to pest species that are invasive to the facility.
E.3 Chemical Waste and Radiological Waste Storage Room:
See Section 1-9 Environmental Management/Radiation Safety. This room shall not be located adjacent to the animal loading dock.
E.4 Recycling Storage Room:
See Section 1-9 Environmental Management/Radiation Safety. This room shall not be located adjacent to the animal loading dock.
E.5 Medical Waste Cold Boxes:
See Section 1-9 Environmental Management/Radiation Safety. MPW Cold Boxes shall not be located adjacent to the animal loading dock.
4-2-10 Design Information
A. Thermal Performance of Windows, Exterior Doors, Glazed Panels, and Skylights:
A.1 NIH Campus, Bethesda, MD, including surrounding areas and Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina Facilities:
Thermal performance for windows, glazed exterior doors, and glazed panels shall be 2.271 W/(m2 K) (0.40 U). Thermal performance for skylights shall be 2.555 W/(m2 K) (0.45 U). Solar heat gain for all fenestration types shall be 3.123 W/(m2 K) (0.55 U). Products with a higher visible transmittance to maximize daylight and view should be selected. Products with an air leakage rating of 0.30 or less cfm/square foot should be selected.
A.2 Hamilton, Montana Facilities:
Thermal performance for windows, glazed exterior doors and glazed panels shall be 1.987 W/(m2 K) (0.35 U). Thermal performance for skylights shall be 2.555 W/(m2 K) (0.45 U). Solar heat gain is not applicable. Products with a higher visible transmittance to maximize daylight and view should be selected. Products with an air leakage rating of 0.30 or less cfm/square foot should be selected.
JS-1 Architectural Urethane Sealant ASTM C1620
JS-2 100% Silicone ASTM C1518
JS-3 100 % Silicone Mildew Resistant ASTM C1518
JS-4 Siliconized Acrylic Latex ASTM C1518, ASTM C834
JS-5 Urethane ASTM C1620
JS-6 Non-Halogenated Latex- Based Elastomeric Sealant ASTM C920
JS-7 100% Silicone Aluminum Finish ASTM C920
BSL Biological Safety Level
ABSL Animal Biological Safety Level
JS Joint Sealant
N/S No Sealant
N/A Not applicable
* Refer to Comments
Note 1: All BSL-3 and ABSL-3 sealants shall be color White.
Note 2: Non-Lab column lists requirements for spaces that are within the laboratory facility but outside of the laboratory room and zone.